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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 65-79

In vitro anti-angiogenic activity of persian shallot (Allium Hirtifolium) extract is mediated through inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation/migration and down-regulation of VEGF and MMP expression


1 Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Ali Mostafaie
Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


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Development of phytotherapies aimed at angiogenesis inhibition, in combination with classical anti-cancer therapies, is among the most intensively studied approaches for treatment of cancer. Epidemiological and animal studies have indicated that consumption of Allium species like shallot is associated with a reduced risk of cancer development. As a continuation of our efforts to study and characterize the effective anti-angiogenic agents from Allium species, here, we investigated the effects of aqueous extract of shallot on critical steps and mediators of in vitro angiogenesis. The antiproliferation, -migration, and -tubulogenesis properties of the aqueous extract of shallot (at 100 - 1500 μg/ml) were evaluated using three-dimensional capillary tube formation as well as a wound-healing assay in endothelial cell-based experimental systems. In addition, the effect of the extract on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and -9) expression was assayed using ELISA, gelatin zymography, and RT-PCR techniques. Treatment with the aqueous extract of shallot at ≥ 500 μg/ml concentrations resulted in significant decreases in endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tubulogenesis. Moreover, the extract caused a dose-related inhibition of VEGF secretion and MMP-2/-9 expression. Taking all the data into account, the current study indicated that shallot – containing potent anti-angiogenic properties - exerts its inhibitory effect mainly through down-regulation of VEGF and MMP-2/-9; essential angiogenic mediators in many malignant and chronic inflammatory diseases.


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