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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-June 2019
Volume 8 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-113

Online since Thursday, March 28, 2019

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Pharmacognostic standardization and chromatographic fingerprint analysis on triterpenoidal constituents of the medicinally important plant Artocarpus heterophyllus by high-performance thin layer chromatography technique p. 1
Gunja Srivastava, Manjul Pratap Singh
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_12_17  
Background: Artocarpus heterophyllus commonly known as Kathal in Hindi and Jackfruit in English has a wide horizon of medicinal possessions. The plant is found in India and in its tropical regions. Objective: Although the plant and its extracts are renowned for its ethnic medicinal values diversely in India, yet organized data somewhere lack in reverse pharmacognostical approach of this plant that shows that plant have not been completely explored for its therapeutic potency. Materials and Methods: In the present study, the folklore potential of this plant has been explored by generating down its pharmacognostical standards along with measurement of its active therapeutic constituent ursolic acid and lupeol via. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), evidence from organized data search says that ursolic acid and lupeol is ubiquitous to A. heterophyllus. The plant was also subjected to spectroscopic-based estimation of tannins (gallic acid and tannic acid) and flavonoids (quercetin and rutin). Antimicrobial testing was also performed. Results: Microscopic features revealed the presence of anomocytic type of stomata, collateral open type vascular bundle in which fascicular cambium is present, calcium oxalate crystal and covering trichomes were key features in leaves. Methanolic extract of leaves of the plant was subjected to HPTLC. HPTLC studies revealed that both ursolic acid and lupeol are present in appreciable amount. Plant showed good antibacterial activity which may be due to the high amount of tannins as the tannins has the ability to disintegrate the bacterial cell wall. Conclusion: The data generated could be significantly used as a reference for the authentication and quality control of A. heterophyllus.
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Investigation on the effects of Bactenecin on POPC membrane in atomistic details using molecular dynamics simulation p. 13
Seyran Saeidi, Elham Esmaeili, Mohabbat Ansari, Sajad Moradi, Mohsen Shahlaei
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_45_18  
Background: Traditional antimicrobial agents are losing their efficiency as microbial resistance increases. Thus, developing antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can assist as an alternative approach. For AMPs, the hypothesis mode of action is involved in pore formation within the lipid membrane, thereby leading to cell death. In this study, interaction between Bactenecin and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) was studied. Methods: For this purpose, two systems, Bactenecin in water and Bactenecin in POPC were treated by 50 ns of molecular dynamic simulation and data were compared with those of free POPC. Results: The results suggest that the interaction between Bactenecin and bilayer membrane cause some disorder and more instability along with little compactness of bilayer. The hydrogen bond between peptide and heads of lipid components may is main reason of membrane compactness. The results can provide some information on how to Bactenecin or other such peptides affect bio-membranes.
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The effect of ibuprofen on expression of Cox-1/2-related miRNAs in MKN- 45 -derived cancer stem-like cells p. 18
Hassan Akrami, Behnam Karimi, Zohreh Salehi, Sajjad Sisakhtnezhad
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_9_18  
Context: Ibuprofen is an anti-inflammatory drug that non-selectively blocks cyclooxygenases-1/2 (COX-1/2) enzymes and thus reduces the risk tumorigenesis. This study was designed to detect microRNAs (miRNAs) that target Cox-1/2 mRNA and to investigate the effect of ibuprofen on the expression of the miRNAs in MKN-45-derived gastric cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs). We were also aimed to find signaling pathways modulated by the miRNAs. Subjects and Methods: The miRWalk database was used to recognize miRNAs that targeted Cox-1/2 genes. CSLCs were derived from MKN-45 cell line and were then treated with ibuprofen. Consequently, the effect of ibuprofen was evaluated on the expression of the miRNAs by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Finally, DIANA tools were used to identify signaling pathways that modulated by the miRNAs. Results: Our bioinformatic investigation showed that hsa-mir-16-5p, hsa-mir-483-5p, and hsa-mir-4669 targeted both Cox-1 and Cox-2 mRNAs. The qRT-PCR results indicated that hsa-mir-16-5p and hsa-mir-4669 were overexpressed 2.34 and 9.47 folds, respectively, while hsa-mir-483-5p under-expressed (2.08 folds) in ibuprofen-treated CSLCs relative to untreated cells. Moreover, it found that these miRNAs are involved in PI3K-Akt, P53, transforming growth factor-beta, phosphatidylinositol and insulin signaling pathways, cell cycle, extracellular matrix receptor interaction, gap junction, small cell lung cancer, prostate cancer, and chronic myeloid leukemia. Conclusions: We suggest that ibuprofen may reduce the risk of gastric cancer by affecting the expression of miRNAs that target Cox-1/2. however, further research is necessary to unravel its exact effects.
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Antioxidant activity and phytochemical screening of Ficus benghalensis aerial roots fractions p. 24
Zeinab Etratkhah, Seyed Esmaeil Sadat Ebrahimi, Nafiseh Khosravi Dehaghi, Yousef Seifalizadeh
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_20_18  
Context: Ficus benghalensis (Moraceae) is an evergreen tree found in south and southeast of Iran as wild and cultivated plants. Different parts of this plant have different effects such as antitumor, antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory. Aims: The aim of this study was investigated the phytochemical screening and antioxidant activities of different fractions of plant roots. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical investigation was done by different methods in references. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH and FRAP assay. All chemical materials and solvents were prepared from Sigma-Aldrich, Scharlau and Merk. Statistical Analysis: All measurements were carried out in triplicate and the data were expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and tukey test. Results: Phytochemical screening showed steroids, flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds, and anthraquinone glycoside are F. benghalensis constituents. This plant had antioxidant activity, but it was lower than the Indian kinds. Conclusion: This study elucidated Ficus benghalensis could be useful plant with antioxidant activity. Further investigation needs for details.
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Differential expression levels of agglutinin-like sequence, lipase, and secreted aspartyl protease genes in Candida tropicalis treated with fluconazole alone and in combination with clotrimazole p. 28
Alireza Khodavandi, Fahimeh Alizadeh, Maedeh Abdolahi, Mohammad Jahangiri
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_22_18  
Background: The frequency of opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients, especially by Candida species, has sharply increased in the last few decades. As the number of antifungal drugs available for the treatment of candidiasis is limited, combination therapy has been employed as one of the most commonly used techniques to alleviate this problem. Aims: The main aim of this study was to explore the antifungal activity of fluconazole in combination with clotrimazole on expression levels of virulence genes, agglutinin-like sequences (ALS1 and ALS2), lipases (LIP1 and LIP4) and secreted aspartyl proteases (SAP2 and SAP4) in Candida tropicalis. Methods: Ten infected clinical isolates obtained from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis patients were used in this study. The broth microdilution assay was utilized to investigate antifungal susceptibilities to fluconazole alone and in combination with clotrimazole and the synergistic effects were interpreted with reference to the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index model. The expression levels of ALS1, ALS2, LIP1, LIP4, SAP2 and SAP4 genes were quantified by real-time RT–PCR. Results: Antifungal susceptibility results showed that isolates were resistant to at least one type of azole antifungals. The combination of fluconazole with clotrimazole revealed synergistic effects against C. tropicalis isolates with FIC90 index ranging from 0.011 to 0.43. The results indicated that combination of fluconazole with clotrimazole could cause a down-regulation of gene expression of ALS1, SAP2, LIP4, SAP4, LIP1 and ALS2 genes, respectively. Conclusions: Fluconazole in combination with clotrimazole may diminish the virulence properties of C. tropicalis.
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Evaluation the effect of nicotine injection on the lungs of mice p. 34
Bushra Jasim Mohammed, Amina Naama Al-Thwani
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_28_18  
Background: Nicotine is the chief addictive substance in cigarette smoking which conceder as the main cause of mortality worldwide. Aims: Through the current in vivo study, we tried to evaluate the harmful effect of nicotine injection on the lungs of mice. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 healthy male mice were divided into four groups of 10 mice each, injected subcutaneously with 0.1 ml of (1 mg/kg) nicotine for 5 days a week for (8, 12, and 16) weeks, whereas the control group injected with 0.1 ml of normal saline. The mice were sacrificed, lungs were isolated and divided into two parts, the first for measurement malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH), the second was subjected to histopathological examination. Results: The results showed that the levels of MDA were significantly elevated (P ≤ 0.01) in all work groups and the mice of Group D had the highest MDA value (23.13 ± 3.4 nmol/ml) with statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.01), and GSH levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in all workgroups, the Group D had the lowest value (6.77 ± 1.33 mM/ml) with statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.01), also the results clarified that nicotine injection was caused a pathological effect in mice lung tissues such as alveoli damage and emphysema, congestion of blood vessels, hemorrhage, alveolar edema, lung fibrosis, lymphocytes infiltration, and these effects were graded in terms of severity depending on the injection period of nicotine. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the nicotine injection causes significant changes in lung tissues and oxidant markers levels (MDA and GSH).
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A prospective study on the burden of renal replacement therapy and pattern of comorbidities among chronic kidney disease patients in clinical practice p. 39
Olumuyiwa John Fasipe, Peter Ehizokhale Akhideno, Oluwatosin Beatrice Ibiyemi-Fasipe
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_7_18  
Background: The high rate of renal replacement therapy, respective clinical staging, and pattern of associated specific comorbidities/complications among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients can influence and predispose them to increase morbidity, mortality, and health-care cost. In addition, there could also be a prolongation in the length of hospital stay and recurrent frequency of hospitalization. Aim: This study was predominantly designed to highlight and create awareness concerning the burden of renal replacement therapy and pattern of associated specific comorbidities/complications among CKD patients in renal practice. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive, prospective study of 18-month duration that was carried out to review the medical case records of consented adult CKD patients attending a Nigerian Tertiary Kidney Care Hospital from January 2015 to June 2016. Results: This study involved 123 consented adult CKD patients made up of 82 (66.67%) males and 41 (33.33%) females with a mean age of 53.81 ± 16.03 years. Eighty-six (69.9%) of the patients were in CKD Stage 5, 15 (12.2%) were in CKD Stage 4, 19 (15.5%) were in CKD Stage 3, 2 (1.6%) in CKD Stage 2, and the remaining one (0.8%) in CKD Stage 1. Regarding the form of nephrological interventions offered, majority of the respondents, i.e. 66 (53.66%) were on maintenance dialysis, followed by 53 (43.09%) on conservative care, while 4 (3.25%) were on renal graft transplant. Among these CKD patients, the prevalence of renal replacement therapy was 56.91%. Most proportion of the respondents 45 (36.59%), were having two number of comorbidities with hypertension 103 (83.70%), diabetes mellitus 39 (31.70%), obesity 24 (19.51%), heart failure 11 (8.90%), obstructive uropathy 8 (6.50%), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection 7 (5.70%), and stroke 5 (4.10%) being the most frequent. Conclusion: The prevalence rates for renal replacement therapy, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity were significantly high among these CKD patients. In this study, the high rate of renal replacement therapy, respective clinical staging, and pattern of associated specific comorbidities/complications among these CKD patients may significantly increase the risk of morbidity, mortality, recurrent frequency of hospitalization, length of hospital admission, and health-care costs.
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Milk-based oral formulations of ibuprofen: An investigation on the role of milk in improving dissolution rate of drug p. 47
Sukhmeet Singh Kamal, Daljit Kaur, Parminderjit Kaur, Amit Sharma, Ashish Kumar Garg, Charanjit Kaur, Gurvinder Singh, Rajesh Kumar
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_18_18  
Introduction: More than 40% of the newly developed drugs pose a problem of aqueous insolubility which is a major challenge for pharmaceutical scientists since in this form; drug doesn't show required bioavailability and hence sufficient therapeutics effect. Objective: The improvement of dissolution rate of ibuprofen (IBF) (poorly water-soluble drug) by formulating its solid dispersions using milk as generally recommended as safe carrier was the goal and purpose of this study. Method: For this, milk containing 1.5% fat (named yellow milk due to yellow-colored pack) and milk containing 4.5% fat (named green milk due to green-colored pack) were used. Initially, both types of milk were rota evaporated to obtain free flowing powdered form. Then, the physical mixtures were prepared in different ratios by simple mixing and solid dispersions were formulated in different ratios by solvent evaporation method using hot air oven. Various techniques were used to evaluate and characterize the physical mixtures and solid dispersions, which included melting point determination, solubility studies, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), in vitro dissolution studies, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: DSC and XRD studies showed reduction in peak intensity of drug indicating the conversion of crystalline drug into amorphous form. SEM studies indicated that the agglomerates formed were smaller and denser with a smooth surface. In vitro dissolution studies showed that the quantity of drug solubilized and the rate of dissolution increase after formulation into the solid dispersions. Conclusion: The milk powder was found to enhance the solubility of IBF due to the presence of casein which entrapped the hydrophobic drug by forming micelles.
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Role of pea protein hydrolysates as antinephrotoxicity p. 55
Meilinah Hidayat, Sijani Prahastuti, Teresa Liliana Wargasetia, Vincentius Ferdinand, Roro Wahyudianingsih, Andreanus Andaja Soemardji, Siti Farah Rahmawati, Nova Suliska, Khomaini Hasan
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_14_17  
Introduction: Renal damage can be caused by various causes. One of them is drugs that are toxic to the renal, such as cisplatin (CP). In an attempt to find a remedy for antinephrotoxicity, several hydrolyzed proteins were investigated. This study was conducted to find out the effects of 8 peas protein hydrolysates (PPH) hydrolyzed using simple procedure to renal organ indexes (OIs) and histopathological features of CP-induced nephrotoxicity Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Protein hydrolysates of yellow peas, gude beans, green peas, and pea protein isolate (PPI) which hydrolyzed using neutrase or bromelain were administered to 50 female Wistar rats. The treatments were given for 30 days, and on day 7, all groups of rats, except negative control group, were injected CP intraperitoneal. Renal OIs were measured and kidneys were histopathological analyzed, which the results were converted to scoring system. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, LSD, Kruskal–Wallis, and Mann–Whitney test. Results: Data of renal OIs were homogenous and normally distributed but were not significantly different between groups (P > 0.05).The nephrotoxicity of CP were not changing the renal OI but worsen the histopathological features of renal tubules in CP-induced rats (P < 0.01). All protein hydrolysate treatment groups showed less histopathological score than CP group. Green PPH hydrolyzed by bromelain-treatment group showed the lowest scores. Conclusion: All PPH hydrolized with neutrase or bromelain improve the CP-induced nephrotoxicity rats. Green PPH with bromelain hydrolyzed had a promising potency as antinephrotoxicity.
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Antioxidant activity of the Ferula gummosa Boiss.'s aerial parts: Measurements based on different assay methods p. 61
Abdoreza Nazari, Elham Golezar, Hamid Mahdiuni
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_12_19  
Introduction: Measuring of natural antioxidants power is important in the food industry. Ferula gummosa Boiss. plant, locally called Barijeh, is a member of genus Ferula belonging to the Apiaceae family. To introduce endemic natural antioxidants, antioxidant capacity of alcoholic and hydroalcoholic extracts of aerial parts of F. gummosa Boiss. was investigated. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant levels and activities between flower and leaf extracts of Ferula gummosa Boiss. plant by different assay methods. Method: The antioxidant activity of flower and leaf extracts of F. gummosa Boiss. was assessed usingferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. In addition, phenolic content of the extracts was measured byFolin-Ciocalteu (FC) method. Results: Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay showed that leaf extract has more antioxidant activity compared to flower extract. DPPH assay had similar results. A slow kinetic behavior was found for methanol extracts of both tissues (EC50 of 0.21 mg/mL and 0.25 mg/mL for leaf and flower methanol extracts, respectively) which was estimated by kinetic mode of DPPH assay. The ORAC assay showed higher values for methanolic extracts compared to ethanolic extracts. Except for ORAC assay, a significant positive correlation was found between antioxidant data of ferric-reducing antioxidant power, DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteu assays. Conclusion: These findings suggest that high antiradical potential and reducing power of the alcoholic and hydroalcoholic extracts of the aerial parts of F. gummosa Boiss. correspond to a high phenolic content in these plant parts. The high antioxidant activity of the F. gummosa Boiss. could propound the hydroalcoholic extracts of this plant as a therapeutic agent to prevent and treat diseases due to free radical imbalance in the body.
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Green peas protein hydrolyzed by bromelain in simple procedure to improve kidney function in cisplatin-induced rats p. 68
Meilinah Hidayat, Sijani Prahastuti, Teresa Liliana Wargasetia, Kirana Nugraha, Andreanus Andaja Soemardji, Siti Farah Rahmawati, Nova Suliska, Khomaini Hasan
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_15_17  
Context: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can lead to terminal kidney failure. Previous study has shown that protein hydrolysate in yellow peas (Pisum sativum L.) can be used as a natural remedy for CKD. Aims: To obtain hydrolysate protein that is most effective in improving kidney function of cisplatin (CP)-induced Wistar rats, based on urea, creatinine, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), and renin levels of CP-induced nephrotoxicity Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Methods of Kjeldahl, Bradford, Kunitz, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used to determine the content of the eight types of protein hydrolysates. In in vivo experiment, the samples were administered to CP-induced nephrotoxicity Wistar rats, with urea, creatinine, ANP, COX-1, and renin as parameters. Results: Total neutrase activity was 40.65 U/mg, and bromelain was 35.77 U/mg. Total specific activities of both enzymes were almost identical. Protein hydrolyzed using bromelain had small fractions (<14.4 kDa). On the 30th day of treatment, urea and creatinine levels of all groups of treatment were significantly different from CP control (P < 0.01). The lowest level was shown by the group which was treated with bromelain-hydrolyzed green pea protein. Among ANP, COX-1, and renin measurements, only the result of COX-1 showed the promising result. Conclusions: Green peas protein hydrolysate hydrolyzed by bromelain are suggested as the most effective in improving kidney function based on urea, creatinine, and COX-1 levels of CP-induced nephrotoxicity Wistar rats.
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Experimental design approach in erythropoietin-alginate microsphere preparation with different concentrations of drug and polymer p. 78
Dewi Melani Hariyadi, Tristiana Erawati, Vita Fitria Ramadhani
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_4_18  
Background: Microspheres as drug delivery system has been selected to increase stability of Erythropoietin (EPO) to achieve efficacy. Aim: Aim of this research was to determine effect of polymer and EPO concentrations on the characteristics. Materials and Method: Microspheres involved sodium alginate as polymer and CaCl2 as a crosslinker. The concentrations of sodium alginate used were 2% and 3%, and EPO were 5000 IU and 10000 IU. Formula of microspheres which consist of 2% and 3% of alginate and 5000 IU EPO were called F1 and F2 respectively, whereas microspheres using 2 and 3% alginate and 10000 IU EPO was named F3 and F4 respectively. Characterization including morphology, particle size, swelling index, and yield of microspheres prepared by ionotropic gelation aerosolization technique. Design of Experiment (DoE) was used to analyze the formula. Results: Results showed that particle sizes of EPO-alginate microspheres were 3.36 ± 0.126μm, 3.42 ± 0.098μm, 3.88 ± 0.131μm and 3.95 ± 0.151μm for F1, F2, F3 and F4 respectively. The swelling index measurement based on mass and particle size of microspheres of all formulas showed an index of less than 10. Respectively, yield was 77.84 ± 0.290%, 86.65 ± 0.191%, 91.89 ± 0.210%, and 94.65 ± 0.252% for F1 to F4. Using the ANOVA factorial design, it was found that increasing sodium alginate concentration significantly increased yield, while increasing EPO concentration significantly increased particle size and yield of microspheres. Both sodium alginate and EPO concentrations did not affect swelling index of microspheres. Range concentrations of sodium alginate and EPO that produced optimal characteristics of microspheres can be observed in the feasible area of design space overlaid contour plot generated from DoE study. Conclusion: EPO-alginate microspheres demonstrated the prospective as carrier and DoE is potential for further optimized formulations.
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Evaluation the effects of Cissus modeccoides hot aqueous extract on alloxan-induced diabetic rats p. 85
Waranee Pradit, Taddaow Khumpook, Kanokporn Saenphet, Supap Saenphet, Siriwadee Chomdej
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_19_18  
Introduction: In this study, the hypoglycemic effects and the safety of Cissus modeccoides (CM) were assessed on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Various concentrations of CM hot aqueous extract were orally administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 30 days. Blood glucose level, hematological and biochemical parameters, and gene expression level were evaluated. Results: After CM treatment, diabetic rats presented nonreduced blood glucose level and unimproved body weight. Increased blood urea nitrogen was observed in CM-treated groups as well. Although hematological parameters and cholesterol level revealed nonsignificant effects from CM, decreased expression levels of the insulin receptor in the pancreas and insulin receptor substrate 2 and glucose transporter 2 in the liver were demonstrated in CM-treated groups. Nephrin in the kidney of CM groups was highly expressed. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed adverse effects and toxicity of CM extracts in diabetic rats.
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

New insights into the therapeutic effects of phenolic acids from sorghum seeds p. 91
Reda Ben Mrid, Youssef Bouargalne, Redouane El Omari, Mohamed Nhiri
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_6_18  
This paper reviewed the beneficial effects of the major phenolic acid compounds of Sorghum bicolor seeds. Different studies were reviewed to determine the major phenolic acid components of sorghum seeds. Several kinds of literature were then analyzed to discuss the different beneficial effects of these molecules. S. bicolor is an important source for food and feed. It is among the top five crops regarding its production and consumption throughout the world. Till date, many studies highlighted different aspects of the biochemical and physiological properties of sorghum grain. However, studies concerning the pharmacological properties of sorghum grain are scarce. The predominant phenolic acids of sorghum seeds are ferulic, p-coumaric, and protocatechuic acids. The bioactive effects of these phenolic acids are mainly related to their antioxidant, antitumor, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal activities. The data collected from recent studies indicate that these molecules have a promising future as natural agents for the treatment of various diseases, and this is particularly due to their strong antioxidant properties. This review provides evidence for the importance of sorghum seeds and their phenolic compounds in the prevention and treatment of several diseases. This work showed that sorghum grains are a good source of beneficial and therapeutic molecules. It also recommended the addition of sorghum grains to human diet as other cereals because of its high nutritional value.
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The effects of ultrafiltration and ultraviolet radiation on microbial content and chemical composition of rose water p. 102
Zahra Sabahi, Zahra Zebarjad, Mahmoodreza Moein
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_31_18  
Rose water is the known product of distillation process of Rosa damascena Mill. It is considered as relaxing and calming agent in religious ceremony as well as favorable food and beverage additive. Rose water contamination can limit its quality and applications. In this study, the combination of ultrafiltration and ultraviolet treatment (F-U treatment) was used to reduce rosewater contamination in traditional and industrial rosewater products. The compositions of essential oils of samples were also analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS) before and after treatment. The results demonstrate that F-U treatment was able to reduce microbial load in all samples without any significant effects on essential oil constituent. GC/MS analysis shows that phenethyl alcohol and citronellol are the main compounds identified in samples before and after treatment. Consequently, application of ultrafiltration and ultraviolet (UV) radiation not only can diminish microbial contamination but also do not decompose the chemical compounds of samples. On the basis of these results, the combination of ultrafiltration and UV radiation beside other physical methods may be valuable alternative technique to obtain high-quality rose water with preserving its constituents, which may be lost during traditional thermal methods.
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In vitro cytobiological effects of phytochemicals from Artemisia turanica p. 106
Mahboubeh Taherkhani
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_37_18  
Background: Phytochemicals from the plants have been used as traditional medicine and can cause many biological effects such as antimicrobial, anticancer, mutagenic and etc. Aims: The subject of this research was to determine the chemical constituents and evaluate the antimicrobial, anticancer, cytotoxicity, mutagenic and anti mutagenic activities of the volatile oil of Artemisia turanica Krasch. Material and Methods: Antimicrobial properties were measured by agar disc diffusion method. Cytotoxicity was determined through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method on human lymphocytes and cancer HeLa cells. Toxicity, mutagenesis, and anti-mutagenesis effects of the essential oil were measured by the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity method, in the existence or absence of S9 as a metabolic activation. Results: Oxygenated monoterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole (35.2 %), α-thujone (24.2 %) and cis-chrysanthenol (16.8 %) were the main components in this volatile oil. Bactericidal kinetics of the volatile oil of A. turanica indicated that Esherichia coli is the most vulnerable one (minimal inhibitory concentration = 2.5 mg/ml, D value = 6.43 min). Cytotoxicity of the A. turanica oil in the human tumor cell line (17.67 μg/ml) was more than that observed in normal human lymphocytes (3291.49 μg/ml). Volatile oil of A. turanica showed suitable antimutagenic potency on 2-nitrofluorene, in the strain of Salmonella typhimurium TA98, without the existence of metabolic activation S9. Conclusion: The results achieved by human cells and with S. typhimurium prove that the volatile oil of A. turanica may be exploited as a natural anticancer and antimutagenic agent with low adverse side effects.
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