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RESEARCH ARTICLES
Therapeutic effect of Ferulago angulata extract on reproductive parameters and serum testosterone levels in diabetic male rats
Glavizh Rostami Nassab, Somayeh Bohlouli, Ali Ghanbari
January-June 2018, 7(1):1-8
Diabetes is an important metabolic disease inducing different effects on body organs, especially reproductive system. Increased oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity changed in diabetes induce infertility and decrease the sperm parameters. This study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of hydro alcoholic extract of Ferulago angulata on reproductive parameters in diabetic male rats. In this experimental study, we used 30 male Wistar rats (230- 250g) with an average age of 10 weeks. A total of 24 rats were made diabetes type I by 40 mg/kg streptozotosin. Animals were divided into 5 groups of control, diabetic, and diabetic+ Ferulago angulata extract (100, 200 and 400mg/kg). Sperm parameters, serum testosterone level, seminiferous tubules diameter, and germ line epithelium maturity were assayed at the end of study. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA test and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Our results showed serum testosterone level and sperm parameters, including count, viability, progressive motility, and normal morphology as well as seminiferous tubules diameter and germ line epithelium maturity of diabetic male rats increased at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses of Ferulago angulata extract (P<0.05). The hydroalcoholic extract of Ferulago angulata, an herbal plant with abundant antioxidants, improved the quality of sperm and reproductive parameters in diabetic male rats.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  840 612 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Pharmacognostic standardization and chromatographic fingerprint analysis on triterpenoidal constituents of the medicinally important plant Artocarpus heterophyllus by high-performance thin layer chromatography technique
Gunja Srivastava, Manjul Pratap Singh
January-June 2019, 8(1):1-12
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_12_17  
Background: Artocarpus heterophyllus commonly known as Kathal in Hindi and Jackfruit in English has a wide horizon of medicinal possessions. The plant is found in India and in its tropical regions. Objective: Although the plant and its extracts are renowned for its ethnic medicinal values diversely in India, yet organized data somewhere lack in reverse pharmacognostical approach of this plant that shows that plant have not been completely explored for its therapeutic potency. Materials and Methods: In the present study, the folklore potential of this plant has been explored by generating down its pharmacognostical standards along with measurement of its active therapeutic constituent ursolic acid and lupeol via. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), evidence from organized data search says that ursolic acid and lupeol is ubiquitous to A. heterophyllus. The plant was also subjected to spectroscopic-based estimation of tannins (gallic acid and tannic acid) and flavonoids (quercetin and rutin). Antimicrobial testing was also performed. Results: Microscopic features revealed the presence of anomocytic type of stomata, collateral open type vascular bundle in which fascicular cambium is present, calcium oxalate crystal and covering trichomes were key features in leaves. Methanolic extract of leaves of the plant was subjected to HPTLC. HPTLC studies revealed that both ursolic acid and lupeol are present in appreciable amount. Plant showed good antibacterial activity which may be due to the high amount of tannins as the tannins has the ability to disintegrate the bacterial cell wall. Conclusion: The data generated could be significantly used as a reference for the authentication and quality control of A. heterophyllus.
  1,004 331 -
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Apoptosis cell death effect of linoleic acid from nigella sativa on human ovary cancer cells through mitochondrial intrinsic pathway
Yalda Shokoohinia, Gholamreza Bahrami, Fatemeh Taherabadi, Fataneh Jaffari, Leila Hosseinzadeh
January-June 2018, 7(1):20-26
In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic potential of fractions (F1-F5) isolated from hexane extract of the seeds of N. sativa on human ovarian carcinoma cell line, A2780. F2 showed an outstanding potent cytotoxic effect against A2780 cells. Next, this fraction was purified to obtain six sub-fractions (SF1-SF6) and their cytotoxic effects were then evaluated. The obtained results showed that SF2 had strong cytotoxic effect against A2780 cell line. The effective sub-fraction (SF2) was determined to be linoleic acid (LA) according to spectroscopic analyses. In the next set of experiments, the apoptotic potentials of LA were investigated. Induction of apoptosis by LA was accompanied by an increase in activation of caspase-3, -9 and reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in A2780 cells. It can be concluded that LA, inhibited the growth of human ovarian carcinoma cells, A2780 and induced mitochondrial-related apoptosis.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  893 394 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Preparation and pharmaceutical evaluation of ferrous sulfate and ascorbic acid floating matrix tablet for prevention of anemia
Rahim Najafi Bahri, Lotfollah Saghaei, Taher Babaeimehr
July-December 2012, 1(2):72-80
For prolonging the time that drug remains in stomach, new methods used as floating drug delivery systems, that available in various forms such as floating tablets. These systems enhance drug absorption and decrease plasma concentration fluctuations. Iron deficiency and its inadequate absorption in diet are of community health problems. Common forms of iron available in the market have little bioavailability and due to greater excretion of drugs from the gastrointestinal tract has many complications such as constipation. Using floating systems to enhance drug absorption can reduce the dose required and drug side effects. In this study, preparation of floating tablets of ferrous sulfate plus ascorbic acid is considered since it has proven that vitamin C enhances iron absorption. Tablets were prepared with swollen polymers like HPMC K4M and carbopol934 by direct compression method. Sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was used to create the CO2 then drug properties such as buoyancy, release percentage and physical properties were tested on that. Tablet formulation No. 10, started to float in 27 seconds and floating state lasts 18 hours in environments like stomach. According to the great drug release and long floating state (12 h), tablet formulation 10 is recommended as a drug supplement to prevent anemia.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,059 225 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Antioxidant activity and phytochemical screening of Ficus benghalensis aerial roots fractions
Zeinab Etratkhah, Seyed Esmaeil Sadat Ebrahimi, Nafiseh Khosravi Dehaghi, Yousef Seifalizadeh
January-June 2019, 8(1):24-27
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_20_18  
Context: Ficus benghalensis (Moraceae) is an evergreen tree found in south and southeast of Iran as wild and cultivated plants. Different parts of this plant have different effects such as antitumor, antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory. Aims: The aim of this study was investigated the phytochemical screening and antioxidant activities of different fractions of plant roots. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical investigation was done by different methods in references. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH and FRAP assay. All chemical materials and solvents were prepared from Sigma-Aldrich, Scharlau and Merk. Statistical Analysis: All measurements were carried out in triplicate and the data were expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and tukey test. Results: Phytochemical screening showed steroids, flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds, and anthraquinone glycoside are F. benghalensis constituents. This plant had antioxidant activity, but it was lower than the Indian kinds. Conclusion: This study elucidated Ficus benghalensis could be useful plant with antioxidant activity. Further investigation needs for details.
  970 296 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Synthesis of novel amide containing schiffs bases of 5-(4-chloro-phenyl)-furan-2-carboxaldehyde: Their In Vivo anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antinociceptive activities with ulcerogenic risk evaluation
Saqlain Haider, Mohammad Sarwar Alam, Hinna Hamid, Sadiq Umar, Deepak Kumar, Syed Nazreen
January-June 2018, 7(1):44-63
A library of eighteen amide containing Schiffs bases has been synthesized and screened for their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antinociceptive activities. The compound 2 (COX-1 IC50 = 63.23 μM; COX-2 IC50 = 1.80 μM; SI = 35.12) exhibited potent selective COX-2 inhibition as compared to indomethacin (COX-1 IC50 = 3.60 μM; COX-2 IC50 = 7.50 μM; SI = 0.48). The compounds 2 and 7 reduced the COX-2 level to 7.5 ±0.35 nmole/min/ml and 6.8 ± 0.32nmole/min/ml respectively. The compounds 6 exhibited reduced the TNF-α level to 3.36 ± 0.18pg/ml. The compounds 2, 6, 7, 13 and 17 did not induce any gastric ulceration in comparison to the standard drug indomethacin.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  760 448 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Investigation on the effects of Bactenecin on POPC membrane in atomistic details using molecular dynamics simulation
Seyran Saeidi, Elham Esmaeili, Mohabbat Ansari, Sajad Moradi, Mohsen Shahlaei
January-June 2019, 8(1):13-17
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_45_18  
Background: Traditional antimicrobial agents are losing their efficiency as microbial resistance increases. Thus, developing antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can assist as an alternative approach. For AMPs, the hypothesis mode of action is involved in pore formation within the lipid membrane, thereby leading to cell death. In this study, interaction between Bactenecin and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) was studied. Methods: For this purpose, two systems, Bactenecin in water and Bactenecin in POPC were treated by 50 ns of molecular dynamic simulation and data were compared with those of free POPC. Results: The results suggest that the interaction between Bactenecin and bilayer membrane cause some disorder and more instability along with little compactness of bilayer. The hydrogen bond between peptide and heads of lipid components may is main reason of membrane compactness. The results can provide some information on how to Bactenecin or other such peptides affect bio-membranes.
  970 209 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Two phase solvent extraction method for analysis of methadon in immature human milk, a breast feeding recommendation in early postpartum period
Nasrin Jalilian, Farhad Ahmadi, Elham Farhadi
January-June 2018, 7(1):9-19
In this work we introduced a new two phase freezing (TPF) method coupled with gas chromatography for the extraction, clean up and determination of methadone (MT) in human milk samples. TPF procedure was optimized for extraction of MT from immature milk sample. The extraction of MT was performed from 1.0 ml of milk that contain 0.2 ml of Briton Robinson buffer (pH=2.5) and 0.3 ml of acetonitrile. For separation of acetonitrile from aqueous solution, the solution was placed in refrigerator at −40 °C. The MT was analyzed by gas chromatography. The results demonstrated that the amount of MT that transferred to milk is significantly different from other published reports. The immature milks of six women who were used MT (dose of 90 mg/day) in duration of 1, 2, 3, and 5 h after consumption were analyzed. Our data demonstrated that, before one hour and also 5 h after MT consumption the breastfeeding is safe and between 2-4 h after consumption dose not safe neither.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  753 392 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Differential expression levels of agglutinin-like sequence, lipase, and secreted aspartyl protease genes in Candida tropicalis treated with fluconazole alone and in combination with clotrimazole
Alireza Khodavandi, Fahimeh Alizadeh, Maedeh Abdolahi, Mohammad Jahangiri
January-June 2019, 8(1):28-33
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_22_18  
Background: The frequency of opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients, especially by Candida species, has sharply increased in the last few decades. As the number of antifungal drugs available for the treatment of candidiasis is limited, combination therapy has been employed as one of the most commonly used techniques to alleviate this problem. Aims: The main aim of this study was to explore the antifungal activity of fluconazole in combination with clotrimazole on expression levels of virulence genes, agglutinin-like sequences (ALS1 and ALS2), lipases (LIP1 and LIP4) and secreted aspartyl proteases (SAP2 and SAP4) in Candida tropicalis. Methods: Ten infected clinical isolates obtained from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis patients were used in this study. The broth microdilution assay was utilized to investigate antifungal susceptibilities to fluconazole alone and in combination with clotrimazole and the synergistic effects were interpreted with reference to the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index model. The expression levels of ALS1, ALS2, LIP1, LIP4, SAP2 and SAP4 genes were quantified by real-time RT–PCR. Results: Antifungal susceptibility results showed that isolates were resistant to at least one type of azole antifungals. The combination of fluconazole with clotrimazole revealed synergistic effects against C. tropicalis isolates with FIC90 index ranging from 0.011 to 0.43. The results indicated that combination of fluconazole with clotrimazole could cause a down-regulation of gene expression of ALS1, SAP2, LIP4, SAP4, LIP1 and ALS2 genes, respectively. Conclusions: Fluconazole in combination with clotrimazole may diminish the virulence properties of C. tropicalis.
  910 165 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Gas chromatographic analysis of sodium valproate in plasma and urine after air assisted liquid-liquid microextraction
Maryam Abbaspour, Mir Ali Farajzadeh, Maryam Khoubnasabjafari, Sajad Haririan, Abolghasem Jouyban
January-June 2018, 7(1):27-43
Rapid, highly efficient, and reliable liquid–liquid microextraction (LLME) methods followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection were developed for the extraction, preconcentration, and determination of valproate in human plasma and urine samples. Proteins of plasma sample are precipitated by adding methanol and urine sample was diluted prior to performing the microextraction procedures. Fine organic solvent droplets were formed by repeated suction and injection of the mixture of sample solution and extraction solvent into a test tube with a glass syringe. After extraction, phase separation was performed by centrifuging and the enriched analytes in the sedimented organic phase were determined by the separation system. The main factors influencing the extraction efficiency including extraction solvent type and volume, salt addition, pH, and extraction times are investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method showed good precision (relative standard deviation less than 8%). Limits of detection and lower limits of quantification for valproate were obtained in the ranges of 0.05.0.22 and 0.1.0.5μg mL-1, respectively. The linear ranges were 0.5–500 and 0.1–200 μg mL-1in plasma and urine, respectively (r2 ≥ 0.9995). The relative recoveries varied from 98–102 % and 93-100 %, respectively for plasma and urine samples. The mean relative standard deviations for intra-assay and inter-assay precisions were 3.4 % and 6.0 %, respectively. Preconcentration factors were in the range of 7-44. Good recoveries (55–86%) were obtained for the spiked samples. The proposed method was successfully used to analyze plasma and urine samples of epileptic receiving sodium valproate.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  669 356 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The effect of ibuprofen on expression of Cox-1/2-related miRNAs in MKN- 45 -derived cancer stem-like cells
Hassan Akrami, Behnam Karimi, Zohreh Salehi, Sajjad Sisakhtnezhad
January-June 2019, 8(1):18-23
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_9_18  
Context: Ibuprofen is an anti-inflammatory drug that non-selectively blocks cyclooxygenases-1/2 (COX-1/2) enzymes and thus reduces the risk tumorigenesis. This study was designed to detect microRNAs (miRNAs) that target Cox-1/2 mRNA and to investigate the effect of ibuprofen on the expression of the miRNAs in MKN-45-derived gastric cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs). We were also aimed to find signaling pathways modulated by the miRNAs. Subjects and Methods: The miRWalk database was used to recognize miRNAs that targeted Cox-1/2 genes. CSLCs were derived from MKN-45 cell line and were then treated with ibuprofen. Consequently, the effect of ibuprofen was evaluated on the expression of the miRNAs by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Finally, DIANA tools were used to identify signaling pathways that modulated by the miRNAs. Results: Our bioinformatic investigation showed that hsa-mir-16-5p, hsa-mir-483-5p, and hsa-mir-4669 targeted both Cox-1 and Cox-2 mRNAs. The qRT-PCR results indicated that hsa-mir-16-5p and hsa-mir-4669 were overexpressed 2.34 and 9.47 folds, respectively, while hsa-mir-483-5p under-expressed (2.08 folds) in ibuprofen-treated CSLCs relative to untreated cells. Moreover, it found that these miRNAs are involved in PI3K-Akt, P53, transforming growth factor-beta, phosphatidylinositol and insulin signaling pathways, cell cycle, extracellular matrix receptor interaction, gap junction, small cell lung cancer, prostate cancer, and chronic myeloid leukemia. Conclusions: We suggest that ibuprofen may reduce the risk of gastric cancer by affecting the expression of miRNAs that target Cox-1/2. however, further research is necessary to unravel its exact effects.
  764 225 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
New insights into the therapeutic effects of phenolic acids from sorghum seeds
Reda Ben Mrid, Youssef Bouargalne, Redouane El Omari, Mohamed Nhiri
January-June 2019, 8(1):91-101
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_6_18  
This paper reviewed the beneficial effects of the major phenolic acid compounds of Sorghum bicolor seeds. Different studies were reviewed to determine the major phenolic acid components of sorghum seeds. Several kinds of literature were then analyzed to discuss the different beneficial effects of these molecules. S. bicolor is an important source for food and feed. It is among the top five crops regarding its production and consumption throughout the world. Till date, many studies highlighted different aspects of the biochemical and physiological properties of sorghum grain. However, studies concerning the pharmacological properties of sorghum grain are scarce. The predominant phenolic acids of sorghum seeds are ferulic, p-coumaric, and protocatechuic acids. The bioactive effects of these phenolic acids are mainly related to their antioxidant, antitumor, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal activities. The data collected from recent studies indicate that these molecules have a promising future as natural agents for the treatment of various diseases, and this is particularly due to their strong antioxidant properties. This review provides evidence for the importance of sorghum seeds and their phenolic compounds in the prevention and treatment of several diseases. This work showed that sorghum grains are a good source of beneficial and therapeutic molecules. It also recommended the addition of sorghum grains to human diet as other cereals because of its high nutritional value.
  817 155 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Green peas protein hydrolyzed by bromelain in simple procedure to improve kidney function in cisplatin-induced rats
Meilinah Hidayat, Sijani Prahastuti, Teresa Liliana Wargasetia, Kirana Nugraha, Andreanus Andaja Soemardji, Siti Farah Rahmawati, Nova Suliska, Khomaini Hasan
January-June 2019, 8(1):68-77
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_15_17  
Context: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can lead to terminal kidney failure. Previous study has shown that protein hydrolysate in yellow peas (Pisum sativum L.) can be used as a natural remedy for CKD. Aims: To obtain hydrolysate protein that is most effective in improving kidney function of cisplatin (CP)-induced Wistar rats, based on urea, creatinine, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), and renin levels of CP-induced nephrotoxicity Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Methods of Kjeldahl, Bradford, Kunitz, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used to determine the content of the eight types of protein hydrolysates. In in vivo experiment, the samples were administered to CP-induced nephrotoxicity Wistar rats, with urea, creatinine, ANP, COX-1, and renin as parameters. Results: Total neutrase activity was 40.65 U/mg, and bromelain was 35.77 U/mg. Total specific activities of both enzymes were almost identical. Protein hydrolyzed using bromelain had small fractions (<14.4 kDa). On the 30th day of treatment, urea and creatinine levels of all groups of treatment were significantly different from CP control (P < 0.01). The lowest level was shown by the group which was treated with bromelain-hydrolyzed green pea protein. Among ANP, COX-1, and renin measurements, only the result of COX-1 showed the promising result. Conclusions: Green peas protein hydrolysate hydrolyzed by bromelain are suggested as the most effective in improving kidney function based on urea, creatinine, and COX-1 levels of CP-induced nephrotoxicity Wistar rats.
  802 118 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Formulation and evaluation of co-amoxiclav 228 and 312 mg dispersible tablets
Abolfazl Aslani, Azam Fathi
January-June 2016, 5(1):1-11
Dispersible tablet is a new form of tablet which any dose of it is dispersed in a small amount of water to create a uniform suspension. The advantage of this formulation is its better and faster effect, no need to swallow, more stability compared to suspension, better taste and greater acceptance by the patients especially kids and elders. This study aimed to design and formulize dispersible tablets including Co- Amoxiclav 228 and 312 mg for enhancement of stability and easier usage and consumption. Co amoxiclav dispersible pill was made by dry granulation method using superdisintegrants ingredients such as crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate and effervescent materials such as citric acid and sodium bicarbonate. The mixed powder was tested in terms of compressibility, particle size distribution and powders flowability. Some tests were performed for determination of assay, content uniformity, hardness and friability of tablet, weight variation, wetting time, water absorption ratio and disintegration of tablets. Prepared granules had good flowability, compressibility and the hardness and friaibility of tablets were in an acceptable range in most formulations. Formulations made by effervescent bases E3 and E4 had disintegration time of 25 and 35 seconds and S1, S4 and S5 formulations made from superdisintegrants materials showed the disintegration time of 260, 262 and 275 seconds. E4 formulation containing amoxicillin trihydrate, potassium clavulanate, citric acid, sodium bicarbonate, manitol, aspartame and PEG 6000 had 25 sec disintegration time and 40 N hardness.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  786 127 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation the effects of Cissus modeccoides hot aqueous extract on alloxan-induced diabetic rats
Waranee Pradit, Taddaow Khumpook, Kanokporn Saenphet, Supap Saenphet, Siriwadee Chomdej
January-June 2019, 8(1):85-90
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_19_18  
Introduction: In this study, the hypoglycemic effects and the safety of Cissus modeccoides (CM) were assessed on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Various concentrations of CM hot aqueous extract were orally administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 30 days. Blood glucose level, hematological and biochemical parameters, and gene expression level were evaluated. Results: After CM treatment, diabetic rats presented nonreduced blood glucose level and unimproved body weight. Increased blood urea nitrogen was observed in CM-treated groups as well. Although hematological parameters and cholesterol level revealed nonsignificant effects from CM, decreased expression levels of the insulin receptor in the pancreas and insulin receptor substrate 2 and glucose transporter 2 in the liver were demonstrated in CM-treated groups. Nephrin in the kidney of CM groups was highly expressed. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed adverse effects and toxicity of CM extracts in diabetic rats.
  708 109 -
Experimental design approach in erythropoietin-alginate microsphere preparation with different concentrations of drug and polymer
Dewi Melani Hariyadi, Tristiana Erawati, Vita Fitria Ramadhani
January-June 2019, 8(1):78-84
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_4_18  
Background: Microspheres as drug delivery system has been selected to increase stability of Erythropoietin (EPO) to achieve efficacy. Aim: Aim of this research was to determine effect of polymer and EPO concentrations on the characteristics. Materials and Method: Microspheres involved sodium alginate as polymer and CaCl2 as a crosslinker. The concentrations of sodium alginate used were 2% and 3%, and EPO were 5000 IU and 10000 IU. Formula of microspheres which consist of 2% and 3% of alginate and 5000 IU EPO were called F1 and F2 respectively, whereas microspheres using 2 and 3% alginate and 10000 IU EPO was named F3 and F4 respectively. Characterization including morphology, particle size, swelling index, and yield of microspheres prepared by ionotropic gelation aerosolization technique. Design of Experiment (DoE) was used to analyze the formula. Results: Results showed that particle sizes of EPO-alginate microspheres were 3.36 ± 0.126μm, 3.42 ± 0.098μm, 3.88 ± 0.131μm and 3.95 ± 0.151μm for F1, F2, F3 and F4 respectively. The swelling index measurement based on mass and particle size of microspheres of all formulas showed an index of less than 10. Respectively, yield was 77.84 ± 0.290%, 86.65 ± 0.191%, 91.89 ± 0.210%, and 94.65 ± 0.252% for F1 to F4. Using the ANOVA factorial design, it was found that increasing sodium alginate concentration significantly increased yield, while increasing EPO concentration significantly increased particle size and yield of microspheres. Both sodium alginate and EPO concentrations did not affect swelling index of microspheres. Range concentrations of sodium alginate and EPO that produced optimal characteristics of microspheres can be observed in the feasible area of design space overlaid contour plot generated from DoE study. Conclusion: EPO-alginate microspheres demonstrated the prospective as carrier and DoE is potential for further optimized formulations.
  611 135 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Study of callus induction and cell culture to secondary metabolite production in Hyssopus officinalis L.
Gulsum Pakseresht, Danial Kahrizi, Mohsen Mansouri, Tayebeh Ghorbani, Nastaran Kazemi
July-December 2016, 5(2):104-111
The Hyssopus officinalis L. is an important medicinal plant. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of the essential oil of hyssop have been reported. In this article the effects of explants types, plants growth regulators and elicitors on callus induction and cell culture conditions were studied. In this experiment it was found that there were non- significant differences among hypocotyl and leaf H. officinalis explants for callus induction and callus growth rate. There were significant differences among levels of growth regulators and interaction effect between growth regulators and expellant types for callus induction and callus growth rate. There were significant differences among plant growth regulators levels for callus induction and callus growth rate. Results showed that medium supplemented by N2B1 and N0.5B1 showed the highest callus induction and callus growth rate respectively. In this paper it was demonstrated the important role of plant growth regulators and explant types on callus induction in H. Officinalis as a medicinal plants. Also the most important secondary metabolites in H. officinalis were increased in cell culture presence of salicylic acid, citric acid and yeast extract elicitors.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  601 141 -
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
In vitro cytobiological effects of phytochemicals from Artemisia turanica
Mahboubeh Taherkhani
January-June 2019, 8(1):106-113
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_37_18  
Background: Phytochemicals from the plants have been used as traditional medicine and can cause many biological effects such as antimicrobial, anticancer, mutagenic and etc. Aims: The subject of this research was to determine the chemical constituents and evaluate the antimicrobial, anticancer, cytotoxicity, mutagenic and anti mutagenic activities of the volatile oil of Artemisia turanica Krasch. Material and Methods: Antimicrobial properties were measured by agar disc diffusion method. Cytotoxicity was determined through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method on human lymphocytes and cancer HeLa cells. Toxicity, mutagenesis, and anti-mutagenesis effects of the essential oil were measured by the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity method, in the existence or absence of S9 as a metabolic activation. Results: Oxygenated monoterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole (35.2 %), α-thujone (24.2 %) and cis-chrysanthenol (16.8 %) were the main components in this volatile oil. Bactericidal kinetics of the volatile oil of A. turanica indicated that Esherichia coli is the most vulnerable one (minimal inhibitory concentration = 2.5 mg/ml, D value = 6.43 min). Cytotoxicity of the A. turanica oil in the human tumor cell line (17.67 μg/ml) was more than that observed in normal human lymphocytes (3291.49 μg/ml). Volatile oil of A. turanica showed suitable antimutagenic potency on 2-nitrofluorene, in the strain of Salmonella typhimurium TA98, without the existence of metabolic activation S9. Conclusion: The results achieved by human cells and with S. typhimurium prove that the volatile oil of A. turanica may be exploited as a natural anticancer and antimutagenic agent with low adverse side effects.
  620 81 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Antioxidant activity of the Ferula gummosa Boiss.'s aerial parts: Measurements based on different assay methods
Abdoreza Nazari, Elham Golezar, Hamid Mahdiuni
January-June 2019, 8(1):61-67
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_12_19  
Introduction: Measuring of natural antioxidants power is important in the food industry. Ferula gummosa Boiss. plant, locally called Barijeh, is a member of genus Ferula belonging to the Apiaceae family. To introduce endemic natural antioxidants, antioxidant capacity of alcoholic and hydroalcoholic extracts of aerial parts of F. gummosa Boiss. was investigated. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant levels and activities between flower and leaf extracts of Ferula gummosa Boiss. plant by different assay methods. Method: The antioxidant activity of flower and leaf extracts of F. gummosa Boiss. was assessed usingferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. In addition, phenolic content of the extracts was measured byFolin-Ciocalteu (FC) method. Results: Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay showed that leaf extract has more antioxidant activity compared to flower extract. DPPH assay had similar results. A slow kinetic behavior was found for methanol extracts of both tissues (EC50 of 0.21 mg/mL and 0.25 mg/mL for leaf and flower methanol extracts, respectively) which was estimated by kinetic mode of DPPH assay. The ORAC assay showed higher values for methanolic extracts compared to ethanolic extracts. Except for ORAC assay, a significant positive correlation was found between antioxidant data of ferric-reducing antioxidant power, DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteu assays. Conclusion: These findings suggest that high antiradical potential and reducing power of the alcoholic and hydroalcoholic extracts of the aerial parts of F. gummosa Boiss. correspond to a high phenolic content in these plant parts. The high antioxidant activity of the F. gummosa Boiss. could propound the hydroalcoholic extracts of this plant as a therapeutic agent to prevent and treat diseases due to free radical imbalance in the body.
  581 115 -
Evaluation the effect of nicotine injection on the lungs of mice
Bushra Jasim Mohammed, Amina Naama Al-Thwani
January-June 2019, 8(1):34-38
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_28_18  
Background: Nicotine is the chief addictive substance in cigarette smoking which conceder as the main cause of mortality worldwide. Aims: Through the current in vivo study, we tried to evaluate the harmful effect of nicotine injection on the lungs of mice. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 healthy male mice were divided into four groups of 10 mice each, injected subcutaneously with 0.1 ml of (1 mg/kg) nicotine for 5 days a week for (8, 12, and 16) weeks, whereas the control group injected with 0.1 ml of normal saline. The mice were sacrificed, lungs were isolated and divided into two parts, the first for measurement malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH), the second was subjected to histopathological examination. Results: The results showed that the levels of MDA were significantly elevated (P ≤ 0.01) in all work groups and the mice of Group D had the highest MDA value (23.13 ± 3.4 nmol/ml) with statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.01), and GSH levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in all workgroups, the Group D had the lowest value (6.77 ± 1.33 mM/ml) with statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.01), also the results clarified that nicotine injection was caused a pathological effect in mice lung tissues such as alveoli damage and emphysema, congestion of blood vessels, hemorrhage, alveolar edema, lung fibrosis, lymphocytes infiltration, and these effects were graded in terms of severity depending on the injection period of nicotine. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the nicotine injection causes significant changes in lung tissues and oxidant markers levels (MDA and GSH).
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RESEARCH ARTICLES
Optimization of lipofectamine-2000/siRNALipoplexLoaded PLGANanoparticles for efficient EGFR gene silencing: An in Vitro study
Ali Fattahi, Behzad Shahbazi, Leila Hosseinzadeh, Ghobad Mohammadi
January-June 2018, 7(1):64-78
In this study, a novel small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery system based on encapsulation of lipolexes was introduced. A Lipofectamine-2000–siRNA complex was encapsulated in particles of poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid; PLGA) by double micro-emulsion. Parameters such as surfactant concentration, the volume of the inner water phase and the outer water phase were evaluated to achieve high loading efficiency, small particle size and low polydispersity. The ratio of the internal to the external phase has a significant effect on the particle size and encapsulation efficiency. The various concentration of surfactant has a different effect on the particle size. In order to achieve optimum conditions for siRNA delivery, the luciferase siRNA was used as a reporter gene. The prepared formulations have a particle sizes in the range of 222 ± 5.2 nm to 900 ± 20 nm and loading efficiency in the range of 4% to 29%. lipoplex loaded PLGA particles (LPPs) had a zeta potential values ranging from −23±2.5 to −29±1.5 mV. S1 and S3 formulations showed greater efficiency compared to the lipoplexes. The gene silencing pattern of LPPs was different from lipoplex. The cytotoxicity of lipoplex loaded PLGA particles (LPPs) was lower than lipoplexes in H1299 cell line. LPPs showed better stability and higher level transfection in the presence of heparin than lipoplexes. The EGFR silencing of S1 formulation was greater than other formulation in A431 cell line. All together these properties suggest that lipoplex loaded PLGA particles have strong potential as a gene carrier for in vivo silencing angiogenesis and treatment of cancer.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Role of pea protein hydrolysates as antinephrotoxicity
Meilinah Hidayat, Sijani Prahastuti, Teresa Liliana Wargasetia, Vincentius Ferdinand, Roro Wahyudianingsih, Andreanus Andaja Soemardji, Siti Farah Rahmawati, Nova Suliska, Khomaini Hasan
January-June 2019, 8(1):55-60
DOI:10.4103/jrptps.jrptps_14_17  
Introduction: Renal damage can be caused by various causes. One of them is drugs that are toxic to the renal, such as cisplatin (CP). In an attempt to find a remedy for antinephrotoxicity, several hydrolyzed proteins were investigated. This study was conducted to find out the effects of 8 peas protein hydrolysates (PPH) hydrolyzed using simple procedure to renal organ indexes (OIs) and histopathological features of CP-induced nephrotoxicity Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Protein hydrolysates of yellow peas, gude beans, green peas, and pea protein isolate (PPI) which hydrolyzed using neutrase or bromelain were administered to 50 female Wistar rats. The treatments were given for 30 days, and on day 7, all groups of rats, except negative control group, were injected CP intraperitoneal. Renal OIs were measured and kidneys were histopathological analyzed, which the results were converted to scoring system. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, LSD, Kruskal–Wallis, and Mann–Whitney test. Results: Data of renal OIs were homogenous and normally distributed but were not significantly different between groups (P > 0.05).The nephrotoxicity of CP were not changing the renal OI but worsen the histopathological features of renal tubules in CP-induced rats (P < 0.01). All protein hydrolysate treatment groups showed less histopathological score than CP group. Green PPH hydrolyzed by bromelain-treatment group showed the lowest scores. Conclusion: All PPH hydrolized with neutrase or bromelain improve the CP-induced nephrotoxicity rats. Green PPH with bromelain hydrolyzed had a promising potency as antinephrotoxicity.
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RESEARCH ARTICLES
Design, formulation and evaluation of its physiochemical properties of acetaminophen, ibuprofen and caffeine as effervescent tablet
Abolfazl Aslani, Ali Daliri
July-December 2016, 5(2):122-134
The aim of this study was to design, formulate and evaluate the physicochemical properties of acetaminophen, ibuprofen and caffeine as effervescent tablets, since, they can overcome the problems with drug swallowing for the pediatric, elderly and bed-ridden patients. Effervescent tablets were prepared in a dosage of 325 mg acetaminophen, 200 mg ibuprofen and 40 mg caffeine by fusion and direct compression methods. Pre-compression characteristics of the mixed powders and granules, such as angle of repose, compressibility index, mean particle size and Hausner's ratio were evaluated. Then, they were evaluated for post-compression properties including weight variation, hardness, friability, carbon dioxide content, effervescence time, pH, content uniformity, assay and water content. Panel taste was performed using 30 volunteers. After performing the required procedures, citric acid and sodium bicarbonate were selected as effervescent materials. It was resulted that the fusion method was exhibited more flowability than direct compression and the G5 formulation was selected as the optimized formulation. It is significant that fusion method resulted in better tablets compared to direct compression method.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Antimicrobial potential of root, stalk and leaves extracts of Rheum Ribes
Reza Kazemi Darsanaki, Maryam Parsa Lisar
January-June 2014, 3(1):10-13
Plants, as sources of medicinal compounds have continued to play a dominant role in the maintenance of human health since ancient times. Rheum ribesis from Polygonaceae family which is endemic to Iran and a few neighboring countries. In this investigation, antimicrobial effects of root, stalk and leaves methanol extracts of R. ribesagainstStaphylococcusaureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiellapneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigellaflexneri were studied, using well diffusion method. Methanol extracts obtained from root, stalk and leaves of R. ribes exhibited antimicrobial activity against test micro-organisms. R. ribes extracts were found to be more active against S. flexneri and K. pneumonia withinhibitory, 13.75 and 13.5 mm. The results suggested that extracts of R. ribes could be effectively used against diseases caused by selected human pathogens.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Formulation direct compression tablet of probiotic as vehicle for oral delivery
Shahla Mirzaeei, Shiva Tagheh
January-June 2017, 6(1):84-95
There has been an explosion of probiotic health-based products. Many reports indicated that there is poor survival of probiotic bacteria in these products. For oral delivery of probiotic, providing living cells with a physical barrier against adverse environmental conditions is considerable interest. The main goal of the study was to develop tablets made out of functional polymers in order to protect probiotic bacteria from gastric acidity, thus providing an easily manufacturing scale-up dosage form to deliver probiotics to the human intestinal. Tablets were produced by direct compression using Microcrystalline Cellulose) Avicel® (as main exipient. To optimize the formulation, using survival rate after both compressing and exposed pH: 2 acid medium were evaluated. Storage stability of lactobacilluse acidophiluse tablets was also performed by evaluation of viable cells throughout 3 months at 4 °C. The highest viability was found in formulation 7 and 8 with %90.37 and 90.27% after compression pressure. Increasing amount of Avicel® in the tablet increase bacterial viability against pressure. 72.51% Survival was showed is related to formulation 3 after exposure acid. It can be concluded that The best protective qualities against artificial gastric juice were observed when tablets were prepared from compaction mixtures of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), sodium alginate, and Xanthan. A decrease of approximately one logarithmic cycle was observed after 3 month storage for formula 3 while untreated cell decrease 3.97 log. This preparation method and tablet formulation can be employed for intestinal delivery to ensure maximum viable cell release at intestine or colon and this product remains stable until the time of consumption.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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