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   2016| July-December  | Volume 5 | Issue 2  
    Online since January 9, 2018

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Study of callus induction and cell culture to secondary metabolite production in Hyssopus officinalis L.
Gulsum Pakseresht, Danial Kahrizi, Mohsen Mansouri, Tayebeh Ghorbani, Nastaran Kazemi
July-December 2016, 5(2):104-111
The Hyssopus officinalis L. is an important medicinal plant. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of the essential oil of hyssop have been reported. In this article the effects of explants types, plants growth regulators and elicitors on callus induction and cell culture conditions were studied. In this experiment it was found that there were non- significant differences among hypocotyl and leaf H. officinalis explants for callus induction and callus growth rate. There were significant differences among levels of growth regulators and interaction effect between growth regulators and expellant types for callus induction and callus growth rate. There were significant differences among plant growth regulators levels for callus induction and callus growth rate. Results showed that medium supplemented by N2B1 and N0.5B1 showed the highest callus induction and callus growth rate respectively. In this paper it was demonstrated the important role of plant growth regulators and explant types on callus induction in H. Officinalis as a medicinal plants. Also the most important secondary metabolites in H. officinalis were increased in cell culture presence of salicylic acid, citric acid and yeast extract elicitors.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  649 160 -
Design, formulation and evaluation of its physiochemical properties of acetaminophen, ibuprofen and caffeine as effervescent tablet
Abolfazl Aslani, Ali Daliri
July-December 2016, 5(2):122-134
The aim of this study was to design, formulate and evaluate the physicochemical properties of acetaminophen, ibuprofen and caffeine as effervescent tablets, since, they can overcome the problems with drug swallowing for the pediatric, elderly and bed-ridden patients. Effervescent tablets were prepared in a dosage of 325 mg acetaminophen, 200 mg ibuprofen and 40 mg caffeine by fusion and direct compression methods. Pre-compression characteristics of the mixed powders and granules, such as angle of repose, compressibility index, mean particle size and Hausner's ratio were evaluated. Then, they were evaluated for post-compression properties including weight variation, hardness, friability, carbon dioxide content, effervescence time, pH, content uniformity, assay and water content. Panel taste was performed using 30 volunteers. After performing the required procedures, citric acid and sodium bicarbonate were selected as effervescent materials. It was resulted that the fusion method was exhibited more flowability than direct compression and the G5 formulation was selected as the optimized formulation. It is significant that fusion method resulted in better tablets compared to direct compression method.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  590 168 -
Comparative in vitro and in vivo bioequivalence analysis of some brands of film coated atorvastatin (a BCS class II compound) tablets marketed in Nigeria
Ogechukwu Okorie, Chukwuemeka Paul Azubuike, Margaret Ilomuanya, Uloma Ubani-Ukoma
July-December 2016, 5(2):112-121
The study is aimed at assessing the bioequivalence/quality of different brands of atorvastatin calcium 10mg tablets marketed in Nigeria. Physical parameters of the tablets, drug content, dissolution and pharmacokinetics data were assessed. The in vivo bioavailability study was carried out using a single dose randomized two period cross-over designs measuring the concentrations in plasma. Plasma samples before dosing and at various time intervals up to 48 hours after dosing were analysed using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography together with UV detector. Pharmacokinetics parameters (Cmax and AUC) were determined and subjected to statistical analysis. All brands complied with the official specification for uniformity of weight and disintegration time. Assay of atorvastatin tablets revealed that all samples contained atorvastatin calcium as their active ingredient between 91.4-102.1% (w/w) of labelled potency. The dissolution profiles showed inter brand variability. Four brands attained 70% dissolution within 45 minutes, however, at 60 minutes, all the brands released over 80% of the drug. In vivo bioavailability study showed that three out of the four brands were bioequivalent to the innovator brand and can be substituted for each other in their prescription. Chemical equivalence does not indicate bioequivalence and one brand substituted on assumption of chemical equivalence with another brand may not give the desired onset of action and therapeutic effectiveness. Moreover, dissolution test might not be enough for ascertaining bioequivalence of atorvastatin and in vivo tests may be required to ensure the quality of marketed brands of atorvastatin.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  422 94 -
Gastric floating matrix tablets of metformin Hcl: Design and optimization using combination of polymers
Rahim Bahri-Najafi, Naser Tavakoli, Somayeh Taymouri, Saeed Shokatjalil
July-December 2016, 5(2):67-79
The objective of this study was to develop a floating drug delivery system (FDDS) from metformin hydrochloride to enhance gastro residence time (GRT), with floating properties which remain in the stomach more than gastric empting time (GET). Eight batches were prepared using hydrophilic polymers as release-retarding, and sodium bicarbonate as a gas former by direct compression technique. The effects of effervescent agent (sodium bicarbonate) and a binary combination of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K4M with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or carbopol934 on floating properties and drug release profile were investigated. Drug release study was evaluated for 12 hours using USP paddle-type dissolution apparatus using 0.1N HCl in 37±0.5°C as dissolution medium. The swelling index, floating behavior and kinetic parameter were found to be regulated by polymers and CO2 generating agent content. The results of powder ingredients and compressed tablets showed acceptable physicochemical properties. It was found that polymer content affected in the release rate constant and diffusion exponent. Statistical analyses of formulations data exhibited that F7 formulation was promising systems revealing excellent floating properties and sustained drug release characteristics. The MDT and DE12h of F7 formulation were calculated to be 5.26h and 49.88%, respectively. Drug release profile of F7 formulation followed non-Fickian diffusion with Hixson-crowell model.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  378 84 -
Cannabinoids as treatment for hemophilic arthropathy: Hypothesized molecular pathways
Amir Hossein Norooznezhad, Fatemeh Norooznezhad, Nima Bagheri
July-December 2016, 5(2):89-93
Hemophilia is a recessive X linked hereditary disease which causes coagulation problems. In severe cases, one of the most common issues is hemophilic arthropathy (HA) leading to a range of problems such as joint pain, swelling, crippling and decreased range of motion. Regarding pathogenesis of this phenomenon, the main consequence is emerged as repeated episodes of bleeding leading to inflammation, angiogenesis and synovium hypertrophy. These pathways are triggered and directed by some cytokines and growth factors such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, HIF-α, VEGF and MMP-9. Cannabinoids (CBNs) are active compounds of Cannabis Sativa known for their highly potent anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory activity. In molecular aspects, they are able to suppress all mentioned cytokines, growth factors and even more angiogenic regulators such as Ang-1 and Ang2. Here we suggested that CBNs could be valid candidates for targeting HA due to their anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic activity.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  375 87 -
Poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-based compounds for articular cartilage regeneration
Ebrahim Tavakoli, Mehdi Mehdikhani-Nahrkhalaji, Mohsen Sarafbidabad
July-December 2016, 5(2):94-103
The most famous artificial polymers for cartilage regeneration constructs are poly lactic acid (PLA, which is present in both L and D forms), poly-glycolic acid (PGA), and their copolymer poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA). PLGA shows high biocompatibility, a potential to break down into safe monomer units, a beneficial range of mechanical characteristics, and governable degradation time depending on the copolymer ratio. In this review we critically focused on PLGA applications such as scaffolds and carriers for bioactive agents such as drugs, growth factors, and other bioactive molecules in order to safely delivering to cartilage tissue for reconstructing articular cartilage (AC) defects
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  360 90 -
DNA binding study of dihydropyrano [3, 4-C] chromene derivative by some spectroscopic techniques
Mahvash Farajzadeh Dehkordi, Gholamreza Dehghan, Majid Mahdavi, Mohammad Ali Hosseinpour Feizi
July-December 2016, 5(2):80-82
This study was designed to examine the interaction of dihydropyranochromene derivative, 2-amino-4-phenyl-5-oxo-4H, 5H-pyrano-[3, 2-c] chromene-3-carbonitrile (4-PC) with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) by absorption spectroscopy, competitive fluorescence studies, circular dichroism (CD) and viscosity measurements. It was found that 4-PC could interact with ctDNA through non- intercalative mode and the intrinsic binding constant, Kb, for 4-PC with ctDNA was estimated to be 2.74 ×103 M-1. Methylene blue (MB) displacement studies revealed that 4-PC could not replace ctDNA bounded MB, which is indicative of groove binding mode of 4-PC with DNA. Furthermore, 4-PC induced detectable changes in the CD spectrum of ctDNA as well as changes in its viscosity, corroborate the above experimental results.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  361 71 -
The effect of shallot (Allium Hirtifolium) extract on profile of Th1/Th2 cytokines in Balb/C mouse splenic lymphocytes
Somayeh Shamlou, Ali Gorgin Karaji, Zahra Hasanpoor, Vahide Askari, Ali Mostafaie
July-December 2016, 5(2):61-66
Modulation of cytokine secretion by phytoconstituents offers a novel approach for treatment of diseases. A class of herbal medicines, known as immunomodulators, alters the activity of immune system through the dynamic regulation of cytokines secretion. Cytokines modulate functions of immune cells, including Th1 (T helper 1) or Th2 responses, responsible for cell-mediated and humoral immunity, respectively. Here, we evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of hydroalcoholic extract of shallot (A. hirtifolium) on immune response in BALB/c mouse. Extract of shallot bulbs were prepared and two doses of extract (80 and 400 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally within 10 days. Thereafter, splenic mononuclear cells (SMNC) were isolated and secreted IFN-γ (Interferon-gamma), Il-4 (Interleukin-4) as two prototypes of Th1/Th2 cytokines, and TNF-α (Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha) levels were assayed using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The results showed that shallot extract significantly reduced Th2 and Th1 responses by down-regulation of Il-4 and IFN-γ levels. The extract also reduced TNF-α, the major proinflammatory cytokine. These data indicated the suppressive potential of shallot extract on the signature cytokines of Th1/Th2 subsets and TNF-α.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  333 87 -