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   2018| May-August  | Volume 7 | Issue 2  
    Online since March 22, 2019

 
 
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RESEARCH ARTICLES
Evaluation of Antibiotic Prophylaxis Administration at the General and Neuro-Surgery Ward of a Teaching Hospital in Tehran, Iran
Nazanin Rahmanian, Hadi Mirhashemi, Mehdi Rajabi, Mohammad Parvizi, Zahra Sahraei
May-August 2018, 7(2):123-129
The common cause of healthcare-associated infections is surgical site infections (SSIs). The appropriate use of antibiotic prophylaxis plays an important role in the prevention and reduction of surgical site infection. So, this study was evaluated the antibiotics prophylaxis administration in surgical patients. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on surgical patients from July 2015 to December 2016. Data were collected for all patients who undergoing surgery and met inclusion criteria. CDC Guideline for wound classification and antibiotic prophylaxis administration were used. SPSS software version 21 was used for data analysis of descriptive statistics. A total of 134 patients who undergoing surgery and met the study criteria were evaluated. Of these, 81 (60.4%) were males. The mean+SD age of the participants was 40.74+18.3. Most commonly used agent was vancomycin plus ceftazidime (71.6%). Duration of antibiotic administration and appropriate antibiotics were not compatible with guidelines. Educational interventions are necessary to improve administration of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to surgery and reduce surgical site infection.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Isolation of Phenyl Propanoid Glycosides from Allium tripedale Trautv
Hamidreza Ghaffari, Masoud Sadeghi Dinani
May-August 2018, 7(2):116-122
Allium species are widely used plant species, which are consumed worldwide as raw vegetable, to make different dishes and as medicinal plants. As a member of this genus, Allium tripedale Trautv., locally called "Khargeriu, Anashq", is an important spicy edible Allium in "Zagros" region in the west and northwest of Iran which is used widely by local people as a spicy vegetable. Phytochemical investigation of underground part of the plant resulted to the isolation of two phenylpropanoid glycosides as the main phenolic constituents of chloroform-methanol extract of the bulbs. Chemical structure of afforded compounds were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR and MS as 3-(4-hydorxy phenyl)propyl β-D-Glucopyranoside ( 1 ) and coniferyl β-D-Glucopyranoside (coniferin) ( 2 ). Isolation and identification of phenylpropanoid derivatives from A. tripedale Trautv. is reported for the first time in this paper.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Preparation and Physicochemical Evaluation of Oral Disintegrated Tablet Containing Dicyclomine Hydrochloride
Somayeh Taymouri, Sayed Abolfazl Mostafavi, Sadegh Yazdankhah
May-August 2018, 7(2):164-173
Dicyclomine hydrochloride is anticholinergic used as an anti-spasmodic drug. The aim of this study was to prepare hard and fast oral disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing Dicyclomine hydrochloride which can release drug at the least possible time. The ODTs serve as an alternative dosage form for patients who experience dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) or for increasing the patient compliance. The ODTs were prepared using croscarmellose, crospovidone, and mallow mucilage as superdisintegrants. Tablets formulated by direct compression method and various parameters were evaluated. Based on disintegration time and hardness of tablets, two types of superdisintegrants (mallow mucilage and croscarmelose) selected and different ODTs containing combination of two superdisintegrant were prepared. Angle of repose and Carr's index of tested powders were in the range of 27.3 to 30.1 and 9.3 to 23.91 respectively. These findings indicated that the powder prepared possessed appropriate flow properties. The ODTs of dicyclomine showed uniform content and low weight variation. Friability percent was below 0.8%, which was in acceptable limit. The tablet formulations contained mucilage at concentrations of 3.3-5% in combination with croscarmelose showed lower disintegration time as compared to those containing mucilage alone. Formulation containing 5% mucilage and 3.3% croscarmelose identified as optimum formulation because of lowest disintegration time, acceptable drug release time and appropriate hardness.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  131 54 -
Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Crupina crupinastrum as a Medicinal Plant Growing Wild in West of Iran
Rohollah Fathollahi, Dara Dastan, Jalil Lari, Shiva Masoudi
May-August 2018, 7(2):174-182
In this study, the hydro-distilled volatile oil from the aerial parts of Crupina crupinastrum was investigated by GC-MS and GC-FID. A total of 25 compounds representing 86.4% of the volatile oil were identified. The main constituents were linoleic acid (19.1%), n-decane (12.4%) and ethyl hexadecanote (7.8%). The antioxidant activity of essential oil and methanolic extract was evaluated with DPPH radical scavenging activity. The total phenolic and flavonoids contents were also determined spectrophotometerically. The antimicrobial activity of essential oil of C. crupinastrum was examined against four gram-negative and five gram-positive bacteria. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the methanolic extract carried out using standard procedures. The data of this study suggests that C. crupinastrum has potential for application as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in pharmaceutical and food industries .
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  134 43 -
An Evaluation of Pharmacist's Knowledge Concerning the Use of Oral Contraceptive Pills in Hamadan Pharmacies
Hesam Serkani, Amir Larki-Harchegani, Azadeh Eshraghi, Maryam Mehrpooya, Jalal Poorolajal, Sara Ataei
May-August 2018, 7(2):189-196
Pharmacists as an available member of the health care system have an important role in transmitting accurate and complete information to consumers about contraception methods. The aim of the present study has been to evaluate pharmacist's knowledge with regard to the use of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) based on the patient's conditions in Hamadan pharmacies in 2016. This analytical-descriptive study was performed on 96 pharmacists working at Hamadan pharmacies. The data collection was done using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 59 items including 5 items on the demographic data of pharmacists and 54 items on evaluating the pharmacists' knowledge of using OCPs in accordance with the patient's condition. The validity and reliability of the questionnaires were investigated in 52 subjects prior to the current study (Cronbach's α = 0.993). The mean age of the pharmacists was 38.81 (SD ΁10.70) years and 50% of them were male. The average of the total knowledge score was 75.94% (SD΁11.31). The total knowledge score showed a significant negative correlation with age, years of work experience and the time since graduation. Also, the total knowledge score was higher in female and pharmacists working in governmental pharmacies as compared with male and pharmacists working in private pharmacies. While the level of pharmacists' knowledge about oral contraceptives was fair, the knowledge of the older pharmacists was significantly lower than young pharmacists. So, further educational interventions were required for older pharmacists particularly males.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Analgesic and Sedative Effects of Piroxicam, Ketamine and Lidocaine Combined With Local Anesthesia for Canine Bone Marrow Aspiration
Moosa Javdani, Zahra Nikousefat, Fatemeh Heydarpour
May-August 2018, 7(2):156-163
Dogs as a valuable large animal model display important roles for investigation of diagnosis and treatment of different disorders of human diseases such as pain relieving procedures. Analgesic efficacy of preoperative administration of piroxicam, ketamine and lidocaine combined with local anesthesia for management of intra and early post-operative pain in the three equal groups of dogs undergoing bone marrow aspiration was evaluated in twenty-four immature female stray dogs that had been referred for FNA technique. Some clinical, physiological and biochemical parameters of the animals were studied before and during the three hours after the BMA. In the ketamine group, hyperglycemia was found to be less than piroxicam and lidocaine groups. A maximum increase of heart rate and respiratory rate was recorded 0.5 h after premedication in all the groups and these variations were significantly recorded in the piroxicam group. Immediately after FNA, clear increments of rectal temperature, especially in the piroxicam group, were also seen in all used drug groups. Evaluation of sedation and analgesia results of the present study indicated no analgesic effect of piroxicam in bone marrow FNA and minor sedative effect just immediately before aspiration. Ketamine with its analgesic nature provided more sedation and adequate pain relief due to FNA technique rather than other groups. Therefore, pain therapy can be improved using preoperative sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine combined with local anesthesia for bone marrow FNA in dogs.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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β-Hematin Formation Assay for Screening of Potential Antimalarial Activity of The Extracts and Fractions of three Artemisia Species
Fariba Heshmati Afshar, Laleh Khodaie, Abbas Delazar
May-August 2018, 7(2):214-220
In this study, In-vitro β-hematin formation assay, a spectrophotometric assessment is used to screen potential antimalarial effects of Artemisia extracts as well as their fractions. The n-hexane (n-hex), dichloromethane (DCM) and methanolic (MeOH) extracts obtained from aerial parts of A. splendens and A. austriaca by soxhlet apperatus, also DCM fractions, which were acquired by VLC method using n-hex, ethyl acetate (EtOAC) and MeOH, of A. spicigera, A. splendens and A. austriaca were examined by the mentioned method. N-hex and MeOH extracts of the herbs indicated weak anti-malarial activities, whereas, the DCM extracts of A. spicigera (IC50= 0.99±0.01mg/ml, which had been reported in previous manuscript), A. splendens (IC50= 1.93±0.09 mg/ml) and A. austriaca (IC50= 1.15±0.04mg/ml) showed potent antimalarial effects. Among the all examined DCM fractions with different polarities, DCM F4΄΄ (60% EtOAC/n-hex, the DCM fraction of A. austriaca) with IC50 value of 1.02 ± 0.03 mg/ml, DCM F5 (80% EtOAC/n-Hex, the DCM fraction of A. spicigera) with IC50 value of 1.21± 0.06 mg/ml, DCM F6 (100% EtOAC, the DCM fraction of A. austriaca) and DCM F7΄΄ (100% MeOH, the DCM fraction of A. austriaca) with IC50 values of 1.44 ± 0.04 mg/ml for both, as well as DCM F7΄ (100% MeOH, the DCM fraction of A. splendense) with IC50 value of 1.58 ± 0.03 mg/ml indicated higher activities than the other DCM fractions. The mentioned fractions could be useful to bioassay-guided isolation of bioactive plant constituents.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Applications of Chemometric Methods to Elucidate Physicochemical Requirements for Binding of PTP1B Inhibitors to Its Target
Monika Chauhan, Sarvesh K Paliwal, SeemaKesar , Neetika , Ashima Nagpal
May-August 2018, 7(2):138-155
The quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were developed using multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least square (PLS) and feed forward neural network (FFNN) for a set of 49 PTP1B inhibitors of diabetes. The MLR,PLS and FFNN generated analogous models with good prognostic ability and all the other statistical values, such as r, r2, r2cv and F and S values, remained satisfactory. The results obtained from this study indicate the importance of dipole moment Y component, Number of H- bond and VAMP polarization (whole molecule) in determining the inhibitory activity of PTP1B inhibitor. The best artificial neural network model is a fully-connected, feed forward back propagation network with a 2-5-1 architecture. This statistics is appropriate to the further design of novel PTP1B receptor. The similarity (CARBO and HODGKIN) analysis was also done on the same series which positively support the previous results. The QSAR study reported in the present study provide important structural situation, related to anti-diabetic activity. Present study enlightens the path of determining the potent lead compounds of PTP1B antagonist.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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A Descriptive Study of Medicinal Plants and Polyherbal Formulation Prescribed for Patients in Persian Medicine Clinic (Salamatkadeh) Affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (2016)
Mahbubeh Bozorgi, Elham Madreseh, Mohammad Hossein Ayati, Roja Rahimi
May-August 2018, 7(2):183-188
Persian medicine has a long history in Iran. Iranian People use Persian medicine for various reasons like efficacy and economic benefits. In recent years, WHO strategies were focused on developing traditional medicine to ensure public health protection especially in developing countries. Based on these strategies and to spread correct knowledge of Persian medicine in society, Persian medicine clinic (Salamatkadeh) affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences was established in 2007. Until now no study was performed about medicinal plants and polyherbal formulations prescribed for patients in this clinic. This study aimed to provide detailed descriptions about medicinal plants and polyherbal formulations presented in Persian medicine clinic. Data were collected from medical record information during June to December 2016. Obtained data were analyzed with SPSS v. 23. As the result of this study there were 5586 people whom referred to Persian medicine clinic during the study period. 109 types of medicinal plants and 170 polyherbal formulations are prescribed by physicians. Matricaria chamomilla (11%) and Kabed (herbal preparation for alleviating liver disorders) (7%) were the most commonly used medicinal plants and polyherbal formulations respectively. According to Persian medicine, most usable herbal medicines detected in this study have varies applications and some of them have not been studied yet. Investigation of the key usages can be subjected for future studies.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effect of Dried Flower Buds of Syzygium Aromaticum L. Extract on Human Cervical Cancer (Hela) Cells
Ali Karimi, Mohammad-taghi Moradi, Zahra lorigooini, Leila Hashemi, Somayeh Alidadi, Mojtaba Saeedi
May-August 2018, 7(2):130-137
Cancer leads to over seven million deaths each year. The current therapeutic approaches have failed to completely treat cancer, and it is essential to seek out new effective anticancer drugs. Because of nontoxic properties, relatively low cost, and phytochemical compounds, medicinal plant extracts have been evaluated for anticancer effects. The present study investigated antiproliferative, apoptosis-inducing, and total phenolic content of the flower bud extract of dried Syzygium aromaticum L. on human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. Ethanolic extract of dried flower buds was prepared and total phenolic and flavonoid content determined. In vitro antiproliferative activity of the extract in Hela and normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) was evaluated using MTT assay. To determine apoptosis induction, HeLa cells were incubated with one time IC50 concentrations of extract, stained with both annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide, and flowcytometrically analyzed. Total phenolic and flavonoid content was 225.6±4 mg GAE/g and 29.3±2.35 mg RUT/g, respectively. Antiproliferative activity results showed that cell viability significantly decreased in dose- and time-dependent manner after extract treatment (p<0.05). The extract IC50 against HeLa cell was less than that against HDFs. Flow cytometry results showed that the extract induced Hela cell apoptosis (apoptosis ratio: 66.77%). The ethanolic extract of dried S. aromaticum flower bud had the greatest phenolic content, and suppressed the proliferation of HeLa cells probably by inducing apoptosis. Further studies may identify the main anticancer ingredients of this extract.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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REVIEW ARTICLES
A Review on The Medicinal Plants for The Management of Toothache in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine: An Evidence based Review
Mina Cheraghi Niroumand, Mohammad Hosein Farzaei
May-August 2018, 7(2):197-213
Toothache is one of the most popular pains which can influence the quality of life which generally refers to pain around the teeth or jaws. Avicenna (980-1032), a Persian scholar, made a great illustration about oral diseases and toothache in book three and the medicinal plants which used to relieve toothache in book two of Canon of Medicine. Current investigations show that most medicinal plants mentioned by Avicenna for the treatment of toothache could have significant potential effects, including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti- nociceptive, antimicrobial and anti-plaque activities, inhibition of the biofilm formation, and mechanical plaque control in the prevention of plaque and gingivitis. This study suggests that indigenous knowledge and traditional practice can make valuable contributions to the pharmaceutical industry and the production of new effects with less adverse effects drugs.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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RESEARCH ARTICLES
Two Iridoid Structures from Eremostachys macrophylla Montbr. & Auch. Rhizomes
Abbas Delazar, Solmaz Asnaashari
May-August 2018, 7(2):221-226
The air- dried and ground rhizomes of Eremostachys macrophylla Montbr. & Auch., as wild-growing plant in East Azerbaijan province, of Iran, were extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol (MeOH) solvents using a soxhlet apparatus. The 10% MeOH in water Sep-Pak fractions of the MeOH extract was subjected to preparative reversed- phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and the isolated pure compounds were identified by one- dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D-NMR) spectroscopic technique. The obtained results showed the presence of two pure components, 6- Hydroxyl Loganin, (1) and Lamalbide (2) with iridoid structures. The results demonstrated the rhizomes of E. macrophylla could be a good source of iridoids.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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