Journal of Reports in Pharmaceutical Sciences

: 2021  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 153--157

Management of COVID-19 by phytotherapy: A pharmacological viewpoint

Mahdieh Eftekhari1, Aref Salehi2, Ayesheh Enayati2,  
1 Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Ischemic Disorders Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ayesheh Enayati
Ischemic Disorders Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan.

How to cite this article:
Eftekhari M, Salehi A, Enayati A. Management of COVID-19 by phytotherapy: A pharmacological viewpoint.J Rep Pharma Sci 2021;10:153-157

How to cite this URL:
Eftekhari M, Salehi A, Enayati A. Management of COVID-19 by phytotherapy: A pharmacological viewpoint. J Rep Pharma Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Jul 31 ];10:153-157
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Full Text

At the beginning of 2020, the novel coronavirus has emerged as a global health problem. Despite the availability of effective vaccines for COVID-19, the disease is still recognized as a global emergency as researchers seek to find a way to treat and manage patients with COVID-19. The main route of transmission is the upper respiratory tract and it then affects different parts of the body.[1] COVID-19 affects alveolar cells, the neural, immune, and cardiovascular system, liver, kidney, and even skin. Mortality is due to multiorgan failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, heart failure, arrhythmia, renal failure, and shock.[2],[3] This necessitates specific attention to possible damage to these organs for the management of severe cases. The many previous clinical or preclinical studies have indicated medicinal plants and natural products can reveal their beneficial effects via multiple mechanisms in the treatment of diseases, including viral, cardiac, and inflammation.[4] In this study, we aimed at introducing medicinal plants from the perspective of Persian Medicine to manage the symptomatic treatment of COVID-19[5] such as anti-viral, antitussive, anti-inflammatory and boosting health of respiratory and cardiovascular systems [Table 1]. In line with the previous studies, the pivotal candidate medicinal plants listed in [Table 1] can attenuate the most severe complication in viral pneumonia, such as rapidly developing cardiac infection, cough, and respiratory inflammation. Among these, the levels of inflammatory cytokines (including IL-6 and TNF-α) directly correlate with the magnitude of viral replication, respiratory and systemic symptoms in upper respiratory secretions.[6],[7] There is no immunity for those who are at risk for secondary COVID-19 infection.[1] The most options in the management of COVID-19 treatment are reduction of virus replication and enhancing host immunity.[4] Medicinal plants as an antiviral volunteer exert a unique preventive and therapeutic approach via inhibiting viral replication; the reduction of cytokine production leads to an improvement of symptoms [Table 1]. Besides, herbal remedy is often able to support physiological function in the host body and it boosts immune response through their active ingredients with multiple mechanisms and synergic effects in comparison with single/isolated molecules that may not be more effective [Table 1]. Most of the plants are listed in [Table 1]; they contain polyphenols, flavonoids, polysaccharides, and terpenoids, which possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, antiviral, and immunomodulatory properties due to activation or inhibition of many signaling pathways, cytokines, enzymes, and mitochondria repairing in each organ of the host or virus [Table 1]. Thus, phytotherapy by various beneficial pharmacological effects of herbals can be applied as a complementary remedy in the management or prevention of COVID-19 and this could reduce the adverse effects of conventional drugs [59].{Table 1}

Author’s contribution

Mahdieh Eftekhari and Ayesheh Enayati: data collection and article preparation; Aref Salehi: article review; Ayesheh Enayati: article review and submission.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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